Li family genealogy


To facilitate the understanding of the complex relationships among members of the Wang Jingwei, Chen Bijun, Ho Mang Hang, Zeng Xing and Fang Junying families, we have prepared four genealogy charts, with additional information about various individuals. Rather than include every member of the various families, we focus on family members who were closely related to Wang Jingwei’s activities and those who played important roles in the political history of the Republic.

  • Li Qingchun, from Haifeng, Guangdong, was a merchant of foreign goods. According to Ho Mengheng, the protagonist Zhou Yongyou of the late Qing novel 20 Years of Bustling Dream is based on Li Qingchun.

  • Xu Mulan ( -1922), from Gongbei, Guangdong, was the niece of the famous businessman Xu Run (Yuzhi). She and sisters Peiyao and Zonghan joined the Tongmenghui one after the other, and were called “The three Xu sisters of Tongmenghui.” She managed a women’s embroidery school which served as a cover for female revolutionary comrades, and was the captain of the Guangdong Women’s Northern Expedition Death Squad.

  • Huang Xing (1874-1916), courtesy name Keqiang, from Changshao, Hunan. He met Sun Yat-sen when he was studying in Japan and helped Sun found the Tongmenghui. Together with Sun they planned many revolutionary uprisings. In 1911 he was the deputy commander of the Guangzhou Uprising. He and Sun Yat-sen are considered the two founding fathers of the Republic of China.

  • Xu Zonghan’s (1876-1944) first husband, Li Qishi, died at a young age. She later met Huang Xing after the Huanghuagang Uprising, and later became his wife. In 1912 she founded the first Chinese Home for Destitute Children in Nanjing.

  • Liu Luyin (1894-1969), from Yongfeng, Jiangxi. He joined the Tongmenghui in 1912 then went to the U.S. to study economics. After returning to China he served as a member of the Guomindang Central Executive Committee, and as minister of the Propaganda Bureau, and taught at several places such as the Fudan University in Shanghai.

  • Li Peishu was engaged in revolutionary movements with Xu Mulan, Xu Zonghan, Li Yingsheng, and Li Peiji. She was acquainted with Chen Bijun. She introduced He Xiufeng and Li Lingshuang to Wang Jingwei and Chen Bijun.

  • He Yingfu was the younger brother of He Xiufeng. He was a calligrapher and served as scribe for Wang Jingwei.

  • He Xiufeng (1898-1970), from Zhongshan, Guangdong, was a seal-carving artist and collector. He admired Wang Jingwei, contributed to the Peace Movement privately but never served any official duties. According to Ho Mang Hang, He Xiufeng opened an antiques store Cungu Zhai in the HSBC Main Building in Hong Kong which also served as a contact address for Wang Jingwei’s Peace Movement. A printing shop, Minxin Yinwu, was another contact address and published Wang’s poetry collection Shuangzhaolou. He helped Wang Jingwei to rent places in Hong Kong and was the guarantor for Wang Jingwei’s Philippines visa.
  • Li Lingshuang served at the Zhixin School, Guomindang’s Guangzhou headquarters and the Nanyang Tobacco Company.

  • Li Haoju served as consul in Manila and general secretary of the Ministry of Railways. In Wang Jingwei’s Nanjing Government, Li was an alternate member of the Guomindang Sixth Executive Committee, a member of the Cotton Control Committee and director of the General Post Office of the Shanghai branch.

  • Chen Jizu, was the eldest brother of Chen Bijun and studied in England. He was a practicing lawyer in Penang. All his four sons had close relationship with the Wang family.

  • Li Yingsheng was the son of Xu Mulan. Mother and son joined the revolutionary activities and were members of the Tongmenghui. He and his younger brother Peiji joined the assassination mission organized by Huang Xing. He later went to study in France, and did business in the Shanghai French Concession.

  • Li Peiji, was a revolutionary and joined the assassination mission organized by Huang Xing. He activated the explosives which killed the Guangzhou General Feng Shan. After the assassination Li was sent to the U.S. by the revolutionaries to study engineering. He served at the Nanyang Tobacco Company after returning home.